Lean Traffic Control (LTC) for Emergency Vehicles Applied in Developing Countries: Tehran Transport Planning
Farzad Tahriri, Ali Azadeh
Emergency vehicles such as: police force, fire engines and ambulances are required to reach their destination as quickly as possible. The most important delay is the consumed travelling time between the starting point and the destination, like congested intersections with traffic lights. The novelty of this paper is to propose, innovate, and developed cost effective server-centric model to dynamically facilitate the performance using an Internet of Things (IOT), by considering a central controller web server, and a microcontroller system by applying Global Positioning System (GPS) and Fuzzy Controller System (FCS) approach. This Lean Traffic Control (LTC) can dynamically and automatically control traffic signals in order to open the path to get the destination as soon as possible. It can be performed by considering three main steps to design: 1-Central controller web server, 2- Communications software application, and 3- Communications hardware application. The primary prototype of this project is ready and the future work will need the LTC system to be tested in real world performance.
Track: Social Sciences and Humanities
The Effects of Listening Comprehension, Reading Comprehension and Grammar Ability on the Firest Grader‟s Dictation
Naya Choi, Jieun Kiaer, Eunock Jun
The purpose of this study was to examine whether listening comprehension, reading comprehension, and grammar ability affect first graders‟ dictation. For this purpose, data were collected from 194 elementary school students in 8 classes of 4 public schools in Seoul and Kyunggi province. Ten sentences for impromptu dictation were extracted from the first graders‟ integrated textbooks, and scores were calculated for spelling, spacing, and punctuation. This score was compared with their regular dictation tests. Children‟s listening comprehension and grammatical competence were examined using ‘Language Scale for School-aged Children (Lee, Heo, & Jang, 2014)‟, and reading comprehension with „Basic Skills Assessment: Reading (Kim, 2000)‟. All the tests were recorded by the voice actor. The results of the analysis are as follows. First, children‟s spelling, spacing, and punctuation in impromptu dictation were highly correlated with their listening comprehension, reading comprehension, and grammar ability. But children‟s regular dictation performance showed lower correlations with their cognitive variables. Second, students‟ reading comprehension, grammar ability, and listening comprehension influenced their spelling, and reading comprehension and grammar ability had a significant effect on spacing and punctuation. In the case of regular testing, the final explanatory power of the variables was much smaller and the relative influences of factors were also different from impromptu test. In conclusion, the ability of the child to read and understand the contents of the text and select the appropriate vocabulary for the context could predict a large part of the dictation score, and knowledge of the grammatical morphemes was also influential. On the other hand, although listening comprehension was a test requiring auditory working memory for the contents, the influence on dictation was minimal.
Is Mother’s Beliefs about English Education Related to Preschooler’s Attitudes toward Learning English? : A Relationship with English Experiences at Home
Naya Choi, Taeyeon Kim, Jieun Kiaer
This paper addresses the relationship between Korean mother’s beliefs about early childhood English education (MB) and preschooler’s attitudes toward learning English (PA). Concurrently, it focuses on the relationship with English Experiences at Home (EEH) expected to have strong relevance to former two factors. The participants were 355 mothers and 165 of their children selected all over the country. The results of this study are as follows: (1) Korean children‟s initiated age of English education was 3.7, and for 3 quarters of them, childcare centers or kindergartens were the only English education providing institutions. Most frequently adopted EEH was technology usage, and the next was English teaching by parents or professionals. (2) The education levels of parents and family income were related to many sub-factors of MB, PA and EEH. (3) There were various relationships among key factors of the study. Sub-factors of MB were partly related to sub-factors of EEH; that is parent‟s teaching and technology usage, but not to professional‟s teaching. In addition, parent‟s teaching and
technology usage were related to sub-factors of PA. Most sub-factors of MB were related to sub-factors of PA. This study composes the variance „preschooler’s attitudes‟ with their English activities preferences and English learning motivation, and found out that MB and EEH are related to PA. This study collected the data of preschoolers by one-on-one interviews. In addition, it surveys regular day care centers and kindergartens, so that it can provide information for less informed group.
On Zheng He’s Exploration of the Americas
There has been a huge mystery related to the extent of travel of the Chinese sailors led by Admiral Zheng He (郑和) of the Ming Dynasty in the early 15th century. Did they actually navigate across the Atlantic Ocean to arrive at the Americas? If true, how many times did the Ming Treasure Fleet explore the Americas? This paper presents an in-depth analysis of a 1597 novel by the Ming historical novelist Luo Maodeng (罗懋登). The analysis involves carefully eliminating certain fanciful depictions and internal contradictions in Luo’s narratives, and correcting some errors and confusing statements. Then, by identifying Zheng He’s whereabouts before he seemed to have vanished from history as the last-known location of his fleet derived by Xi Longfei, Yang Xi and Tang Xire (席龙飞、杨熺、唐锡仁), and recorded by Ming historian Zhu Yunming (祝允明), the entire paths and timelines of Zheng He’s voyages to the Western Ocean given by Luo Maodeng are clearly exposed: the Ming sailors reached as far as Cahokia, the ancient American Indian city, in the central Mississippi Valley in 1423 and 1433, respectively, during their 6th and 7th voyages, more than 60 years before Columbus set foot in the Americas. Such findings also gain support from comparing the 1418 Chinese World Map with the map of 1602 Kunyu Wanguo Quantu (《坤舆万国全图》 or Complete Geographical Map of All the Kingdoms of the World) that had used information from Chinese maps drawn between 1428 and 1432.
Track: Engineering and Technology
Flow Characteristics over Twin Cylinders in Side-by-Side Arrangement
This investigation applies a multi-block grid to implement the original flow model developed by Chen and Weng. Comparing the drag coefficient curve of Hori with the predicted one by the present simulation reveals that this study yields a reliable prediction. After that, a parametric study is given. In general, Cps at θ = -180° for Re = 20 are larger than the corresponding ones for Re = 10. In addition, the minimum Cps at the outer side of the cylinder for all cases of Re = 20 are always larger than the ones for Re = 10. Similarly, the minimum Cps at the gap side of the cylinder for all cases of Re = 20 are always greater than the ones for Re = 10, too. The maximum Cps in the cases
of Re = 20 are less than those at Re = 10 all the time. Consequently, the pressure distributions of Re = 20 can be regarded as the squeezing of the pressure profiles at Re = 10. Except the single cylinder case, the positive pressure regions of all the cases at Re = 20 are larger than those for Re = 10. Moreover, the stagnation point matches the maximum point of CP. Although the difference of Cp between the two Reynolds numbers is appreciable, the tendencies of the Cp curves are consistent. As L is smaller, the drag and interference drag coefficients smoothly increase to a peak value with L for both Re = 10 and 20. Then they sharply decline to the minimum value as L is raised further. The conclusion is drawn that L is a major parameter in point of view for flow interference, whereas the effect of Re is minor.
The Effects of Inlet Airflow Angle on the Quality of Mixing Air Distribution in an Aircraft Cabin Mock-up
Attalla Mohamed Mahmoud, Mohamed Abdelfadiel Mohamed, Iraqi Mohamed Sabry
This paper presents a numerical investigation on the effects of inlet airflow angle on the airflow, temperature and CO2 concentration fields in a three-row airliner cabin. The computations are conducted using Ansys-Fluent and the numerical results were compared against published experimental data. The inlet airflow is supplied into the aircraft cabin at six different directions of A (0°, 180°), B (355°, 185°), C (350°, 190°), D (340°, 200°), E (330°, 210°) and F (315°, 225°). The numerical results showed that flow pattern, temperature distributions and CO2 levels are improved significantly inside the whole cabin and at passengers’ breathing zones in case of changing the inlet airflow angle. The performance of mixing-air distribution system for the whole aircraft cabin is enhanced remarkably in case of using small inlet angles. Angles B (5°) and C (10°) provided the best ventilation performance among the six tested angles within the whole cabin and at local breath zones of passengers in terms of thermal and health comfort. Moreover, inlet airflow angle C (10°) showed high constancy and stability in the pattern of the flow field and temperature and low CO2 level in cabin centre area compared to inlet airflow angle B (5°) for both the whole aircraft cabin and local breathing zones.
The Failure of Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation for Flow Control over a Hump using Synthetic Jet Actuator
Mohamed, Abdelfadiel, Mohamed, Qin, Ning
The performance of three different numerical methods for predicting the large separated flow over a hump model and its control using steady suction and synthetic jet techniques is investigated. URANS, DES and DDES approaches are developed and applied to determine the proficiency of these approaches in predicting such degree of separation and assess their applicability to capture the turbulent flow structures in the separated flowfield. Active flow control techniques are applied by means of two-dimensional slot located at x/c≈0.65 along the model spanwise with an opening of 0.00187c, directly upstream on the concave surface. The novelty of the present work is that the dynamic grid technique is formulated to model the repeated motion of the synthetic jet membrane instead of using the oscillating boundary conditions at the jet exit. Dynamic grid is found to be useful in providing more insight into the physical mechanism that drive the interface between the plenum flow and separated boundary layer flow. The numerical results obtained from the baseline and controlled cases are validated against the measurements and compared with published numerical results in terms of mean flow quantities. Despite the fact that URANS and DES methods provide good agreement with the measurements for the uncontrolled and steady suction controlled cases, only DES showed the flow unsteadiness, however the DDES method failed to predict the mean flow quantities or the turbulent flow features. The dynamic grid technique successfully simulated the cavity flow, showed up the existence of two counter rotating vortices inside the plenum move up and down during the control cycle and finally energised the boundary layer in the separated flow region.
Track: Health And Medicine Studies
Effect of Stem Cell Therapy on Gentamicin Induced Testicular Dysfunction in Rats
Somia M. Mohamed, Nagwa M. EL Hawary, Seham F. Mohamed, Neamat I. Hashim, Sohair Y. Saleh, M. R. Bakeer, F. A. Sawiress
Infertility is a worldwide problem affecting couples that have unprotected intercourse, so the current study investigated the possible ameliorative effect of intra testicular stem cell injection on rats subjected to gentamycin testicular degeneration. For this study 80 male rats were randomly allocated into 3 groups, namely, the control group (group I), gentamicin group (group II) and gentamicin and stem cell group (group III). Gentamicin was administered daily for 2 weeks (80 mg/kg) to groups (II) & (III). Stem cells were injected intra testiculary once by the end of gentamicin administration in group (III). Blood and testicular samples were collected by the end of weeks 2, 6 & 10 from group (I) and (II), and by the end of weeks 6 & 10 from group (III). The obtained results showed a significant decreases in serum testosterone, testicular testosterone and estradiol, sperm counts , sperm viability and an increase in % of fragmented DNA was demonstrated in testicular tissue of group (II) compared to the control (group III). Mesenchymal stem cells administration significantly improved all altered testicular parameters, where values of group III (except testicular estradiol) were not significantly different from those of control group (I). Conclusively, mesenchymal stem cells proved to be beneficial in rats subjected to gentamicin induced testicular dysfunctions.