Exchange Rate, Bank Loans Performance and Monetary Policy in Kazakhstan
The purpose of a national currency is to allow the central economic planners and bank managers a measure of control over the economic activity of the country and to provide an effective medium of exchange to promote domestic commerce and foreign trade. The Kazakhstan government has taken key steps to assure that the national currency, Kazakh tenge, is a tradable currency with adequate provisions for clearing and settlements among banking institutions. The National Bank of Kazakhstan (NBK) decided to let the tenge to free float in August 2015 as part of a shift to an inflation targeting regime. And, to improve the monetary policy in Kazakhstan, NBK decided to regulate the one-day repo rate, also known as the base rate, or as the monetary policy rate. The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether the exchange rate really depends on crude oil prices, exchange rate of Russian ruble, or it mainly depends on monetary policy rate. The sample of monthly data for 38 banks of Kazakhstan during the 2013-2016 years is used for analysis of the influence of base rate, oil prices, inflation rate, international reserves, and bank loans on the exchange rate of Kazakh tenge to American dollar. The empirical results of multiple regressions show that the base rate and cross exchange rate of Russian ruble significantly positively influence on the exchange rate of Kazakh tenge, but the oil price and the amount of bank loans significantly negatively influence on the exchange rate. The amount of international reserves, hold in NBK, insignificantly positively influences on the exchange rate of national currency.
Track: Social Sciences and Humanities
A Survey Study on Imagination, Creativity, and Innovative Thinking of Undergraduate and Graduate Students in Taiwan
Dengchuan Cai, Nyan-Myau Lyau, Chuan-Yu Chang, Sheng-Chun Huang, Jia-Wei Jhang
Imagination, creativity, and innovative thinking are very important capabilities for various industries. The design students will be the designers of industries in the near future. In order to plan a course to enhance students with those capability, it is necessary to get understanding of the state of the arts of those capabilities of the students. This study surveyed those capabilities of undergraduate and graduate design students in Taiwan.A questionnaire consisting of four aspects with 99 questions was used to survey the capabilities of students. Sixteen, twenty-nine, twenty-four, and twenty-nine, questions were designed for the imagination, creativity, innovative thinking, and work efficacy, respectively. Forty-five undergraduate students and twenty-seven graduate students in department of industrial design were surveyed. The results illustrated that: 1) the overall score of the four capabilities of the graduate student was greater than that of the undergraduate students, 2) In the four aspects, the graduate students in the future imagination and work efficacy were better than the undergraduate students, however, the affective creativity and innovative thinking were not different, 3) The graduate students were better than the undergraduate students in seven of the ten second aspects, among them were curiosity, imagination, originality, persistence, situation construction, work attitude, and work vision. Whereas, in the other three second aspects were not different, among them are adventure, obey, and over the fact, and 4) the graduate students were better than the undergraduate students in 15 questions of the total 99 questions. The results can be a reference for design education and research.
Developing Trilingual Education in Universities of Kazakhstan
M.Zh. Tusupbekova, M.A. Idrissova, B.G. Smagulova, Zh.K. Nurmanova, K.K. Kulanova
Kazakhstan is officially a trilingual country with Kazakh, Russian and English as its official languages. The status of these languages was proclaimed in October 2006 at the Twelfth Congress of the Assembly of Nations of Kazakhstan, where the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N. Nazarbayev said that the knowledge of three languages was very important for the future of the next generation. Most universities in Kazakhstan are appropriately placed within a bilingual category with Kazakh and Russian as general working languages. Accordingly, the national project “Trinity of Languages” identifies Kazakh as the state language, Russian as an official language, and English as the language of international communication. The main purpose of this project is to stress not only the importance of KazakhRussian bilingualism, but also the need in learning and teaching English. Kazakh, Russian and English are to be used in scientific publications, in university guides, in names for faculties, and on web sites. According to data offered by the Ministry of Education and Science, universities of Kazakhstan have expanded their multilingual groups since 2008 (with 360,000 or 1.4%, of students studying in multilingual groups today, while 8.3% of teachers speak English). New subjects such as “Professional Kazakh (Russian) Language” and “Professional Foreign Language” were introduced in the educational curricula of universities. Additionally, universities are implementing tiered models of learning English in accordance with international standards. Universities have implemented plans to pass institutional and specialized accreditation in three languages. Most of the basic educational books at universities are now translated into Kazakh, Russian and English. This paper discusses the development of trilingual education in Kazakhstan and the impact this language policy on the educational process. Focus group discussions with students are analyzed to measure the participants’ desires to use three languages.
Implementation of the Official Language Policy and the Linguistic Reality in Astana, Kazakhstan
Tussupbekova Madina, Zharkynbekova Sholpan, Abdualiuly Bekzhan, Konyratbayeva Zhanar, Kulmanov Kuandyk
Astana is a culturally developing young capital of Kazakhstan. Various ethnic communities as Kazakhs, Russians, Ukrainians, Tatars, Armenians, Azerbaijanis, Jews, Belarusians, Georgians, Moldovans, Tajiks, Uzbeks, and others live in Kazakhstan. Many languages function and coexist. The city can rightly be called multi-ethnic because of its community is heterogeneous. Despite the peculiar ethnic composition and linguistic configuration, the study of functioning language policy in Kazakhstan has been limitedly researched. The purpose of the study is to examine the linguistic landscape of Astana city to the current language policy and linguistic reality. In other words, by examining the linguistic landscape, the research aims at exploring the implementation of the current language policy in Astana and functioning of Kazakh, Russian and English languages displayed on the public road signs, advertising billboards, street names, place names, commercial shop signs, and public signs on government buildings.
Track: Engineering and Technology Studies
Comparison of Support Vector Machine (SVM), Sediment Rating Curve (SRC) and FAO Approaches to Predict Suspended Sediment Load of Karoon River, (IRAN)
Emamgholizadeh, Samad, Karimi Demneh, Razieh
The accurate estimation of suspended sediment yield of rivers is one of the most important parameter in water engineering and hydraulic structures that has a comprehensive effect on water resource management. Widespread studies have been done in these contexts up to now. In these researches, a relationship is established between flow discharge and sediment discharge which are uncertain. So, researchers tren to use of artificial intelligence techniques to predict suspended sediment load of rivers. In this study, the support vector machine approach (SVM) is used to estimate suspended sediment load of Karoon River in Mollasani hydrometric station located in southwest of Iran. The results are compared with the results of two traditional sediment rating curve (SRC) and FAO approaches. Findings showed that SVM model with correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.97 and 0.73 and root of mean square error (RMSE) of 46117 (ton.day-1) and 61689 (ton.day-1) had better performance than SRC model (with R2 (RMSE) of 0.72 (173913 ton.day-1) and 0.49 (222028 ton.day-1)) and FAO model (with R2 (RMSE) of 0.72 (284840 ton.day-1) and 0.49 (302062 ton.day-1)) for the training and testing levels, respectively .
Evidence for Deeper Hydrocarbon Exploration: New Insight from the
Hydrocarbon Plays in the North Celtic Sea Basin
Godspower I. Onyenanu
The timing of hydrocarbon maturation has an important implication for deeper hydrocarbon prospecting. Results from series of basin models for the North Celtic Sea Basin display the implications of structural evolution on the timing of hydrocarbon maturation, charge history and trap formation, sealing potential, remigration and phase change. This study adds to previously published work, which were based on 1D modeling, by generating 2D models using PetroModTM software. Seismic data has been used to reconstruct the regional structural framework, while the integrated wireline logs and geochemical data provided lithological, porosity and palaeothermal information. The palaeothermal values and available vitrinite reflectance data has been used to calibrate the models to present day heat flow of 52mW/m2. Results from this study shows that hydrocarbon maturation, generation and migration were affected by the Triassic and Late Jurassic rifting activities, resulting in a complex charge history and trap modification through time. The Late Jurassic source rocks (PurbecK) attained peak maturation for oil in late Cretaceous while the Early Jurassic Source rocks (Liassic and Toarcian) entered the gas window in Early Cretaceous. Analysis of the petroleum systems for deeper hydrocarbon prospecting suggests that two expulsion phases of hydrocarbons occurred in the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous respectively. This result suggests that there is potential for charge of suitable reservoir facies at depth if the reservoir quality can be preserved. Hydrocarbon preservation risk is low in anticlinal structures but there is a high risk of hydrocarbon remigration along modified fault planes in fault dependent structures. The study demonstrates how basin geometry has changed through time, due to multiple tectonic events, leading to modification of older traps.
A Study on Wave Power Generation System Utilization of Bell-Mouth Effect to Pairs of Water Chambers
Seong Beom Lee1, Kesayoshi Hadano2, Guk Hwan Sin3, Byung Young Moon
The following research suggests a novel wave power generation system for ocean energy. A system has to satisfy all four durability, constructability, efficiency in economy and power conversion to certain extent for it to be put into practical use. These four conditions are met by having a water chamber installed in a series on a breakwater, and rotating the hydraulic turbine with the difference in water level from the forward and reverse directions of the Bell Mouth effect. The water transportation model had been designed and put into numerical analysis. According to the analysis, the output power is highest when the wave height is large, the wave cycle short, and the water depth deep. The results are to be used later on as reference data to express the change in water level and flux inside the water chamber without inconsistency.