ETAR Proceedings




Copyright © Global Illuminators. All rights reserved

ETAR Proceeding
Volume 1, Pages 1-281
November 25-26, 2014 Bali Indonesia
Edited by Dr. Ahmed Saddam


Volume 1
pp. 1-281 (2014)
(ETAR  2014)
Volume 2
pp. 1-180 (2015)
(ETAR  2015)

Preface of proceeding

Track: Business Management & Economic Studies

Assessing Organizational Learning Culture, Leadership and Dialog in a Learning Organization


Pages 1-12
Muhammad Nurjufri Jaafar, Professor Dr. Norliya Ahmad Kassim, Muhammad Faizal Iylia Mohd Ghazali, Muhammad Ariff Idris, Mohamad Lokman Hakim Khalib

A learning organization is an organization that learns powerfully and collectively and is continually
transforming itself to better collect, manage, and use knowledge for the organization‟s success. This study
examines the practices of three dimensions of learning organization namely organizational learning culture,
leadership and dialog in the Selangor State Public Library in Malaysia. The study employs a survey method
using questionnaire to collect data from the staff of the organization. On the average, the result reveals that the
organization has a positive inclination towards being a learning organization. Specifically, the results show that
respondents quite agree that organizational learning culture and leadership (both mean=4.30 respectively) take
place in their organization. They also quite agree that dialog (mean=4.08) is being practiced in their
organization. The findings of the study will be useful to the management of the organization in building their
organization more effectively as a learning organization.

Customer Value Co-Creation in Electronic Banking Services


Pages 13-18
Tsourela Maria, Paschaloudis Dimitris and Nerantzaki Dafni

This research paper explores customer value co-creation in e-banking services. The use of internet as a mean of
providing and consuming services has been growing over the past few years. New electronic channels are
replacing the more traditional ones. An exploratory study was conducted on experienced electronic marketing
management banking executives, concerning e-services, by using a qualitative in-depth interviewing method.
An effort was made to gain knowledge about facts they come across, tasks they perform and what they consider
as critical knowledge to complete their targets. The findings increase the understanding that co-creation is also
influenced by marketing management and not only customers, in electronic banking context. The findings allow
practitioners to improve their services and marketing strategies and pass on information to the academics about
interesting future research areas.

The Emotional Effect of Multimedia Induced Emotions on e-Learning among Polytechnic Students


Pages 19-29
Jeya Amantha Kumar


This study examines the effect of multimedia induced emotions on emotional affect in an e-learning
environment. Emotions are induced or designed based on three categories; positive (PosD), neutral (NeuD) and
negative (NegD). All systems were similar in content and narration but differed in multimedia visual element
such as colour, font size, font type and images. The respondents selected for this study are undergraduate
students (N=33) from the Diploma of Electronic Engineering currently enrolled for the EE503: IC Fabrication
and Packaging Technology course. Emotional affect due to the treatment were measured using the Positive and
Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) Results showed significant differences in the reductions of negative affect
scores for PosD and NegD design. Concluding that negative emotional design is beneficial in e-learning as it
could reduce negative emotional affect.


Factorsanalysis Affecting Customer Loyalty Mandiri Inernet Banking Services At Bank Mandiri Indrapura Surabaya Branch


Pages 30-43
Rinjani, Ayrton, Ika , Windyagiri, Refi, Rifaldi


The research purpose is to know the factors that affecting consumer loyalty in internet banking transcattion at
Bank Mandiri at Indrapura, Surabaya Branch Office and to understand the importance of each factor affecting
customers in conducting banking transactions through the internet banking. Factor Analysis method is use to
identify the latent variable of five sub factor that affect the customer loyalty, such: Service Quality, Perceived
Value, Trust, Habit, and Reputation. An indicator of each sub variables will be analyzed and reduced to a few
dominant factors thataffect customer loyalty Mandiri Internet banking, using principal component analysis
factor analysis method. The results are, respondents were more interested make banking transactions through
electronic banking services / remote interaction (mobile banking, net banking, and ATM) on ABC Islamic Bank
with a feature can perform cash withdrawal transactions, the existence of a layered security in every transaction,
transfer to other bank accounts, transfer of the RTGS (Real-Time Gross Settlement), payment of bills for
entertainment (e.g Online Games, internet, cable TV), payment of credit card, credit purchases and subscribe to
the newspaper, can be used to deposit cash, can register (SMS banking, internet banking, mobile banking), can
be accessed anywhere,and rapid transaction processing.

The Behavioral Approach to Urban Poverty Reduction Model


Pages 44-64
Nazief Nirwanto and Harmono


This study attempts to build a model of poverty alleviation based on specific aspect of empowerment, i.e., in
terms of social, economic, and environmental dimensions. The variables estimated as a measure of community
_the urban poor__ behavior especially in perceiving awareness of those social, economic, as well as
environmental aspects of empowerment.The indicators are grouped into three dimensions according to those
aspects under study. First, economic indicators namely fund management; capital, asset growth, payback, and
profit optimization. Second, social indicators are participation rate in decision making, access to institutions
involved, networking, perceived poverty, and independency or entrepreneurship. The indicators of the
awareness on environment dimensions are measured by proxy of hygiene and sanitation, physical utility,
comfortable living, and aesthetics. The unit of analysis in building the model is the participants of P2KP (UPP
or urban poverty empowerment program funded by World Bank) within two kelurahans or village, i.e.
Bululawang and Sengguruh, both are located in kabupaten or regency Malang, East Java. The data are obtained
by a well-prepared profound questionnaire and analyzed using factor analysis and cluster analysis. The
respondents are segmented according to its demography and eventually the community is segmented in conform
with the factors identified in order to design a suitable model based on the characteristics and behavior as well.
Three factors identified represent the behavior in the area of Bululawang are: 1) Funding; 2) Productivity; and 3)
Independency; charaterized by 61 percent emphasizes on productivity, 14 percent careless on poverty, and 24
percent on funding, etc. Sengguruh comprises: 1) Productivity; 2) Accessibility; and 3) Competitivess,
charaterized by 13 percent carelessness, 26 percent less attentive, and 61 percent of respondents out of 98
respondents perceived positively on poverty.This study proves that clearer identified picture of the urban
community under study by its behavior and poverty perception then produced more appropriate model of
poverty alleviation programs which are expected to become more effective and fruitful as a means policy

The Interconnection between Contractors’ Bidding Strategies and JKR (Jabatan Kerja Raya) Tender Evaluation Factors


Pages 65-69
Fadzida Ismail, Suziyana Mat Dahan, Ahmad Nazif Noor Kamar, NurhaizanMohd Zainudin and Jack Kie


Every contractor faces the difficulty to survive in this competitive era. Contractors need projects to survive. It is better to grab a project from the government for payment security reason. However many contractors do not
have the strategies which are in-line with the JKR evaluation factors. This will lead to the failure during the
tender evaluation process. Therefore this research is conducted to identify the basic bidding strategies which are
of utmost importance for the evaluation of tender. The focus will be on building and civil contractors. The
objective is to assess the interconnection between the contractors’ bidding strategies and JKR evaluation factors.
The data are collected from a pilot questionnaire survey and followed by a modified questionnaire survey,
depending on the value obtained in the reliability analysis. At the end of this research, the results obtained show
the priority of the strategies in relation to the factors of evaluation. Therefore it is hoped that the contractors will benefit from this research to become more competitive in tender bidding and increase their chance of winning
the bid.

Corporate Diversification and Cash Holding


Pages 70-79
Purnamasari Kurnia, Fitdiarini Noorlaily

Cash holding is also one of the company’s internal funding sources that could be used for investment. Corporate
investment funding policy will affect the magnitude of the cash holding because management must decide the
source of the funds used, i.e. internal and external priorities, and funding sources that will be used first. This
study aimed to test whether diversification strategies reduce or increase the tendency of companies to save cash
on a company financially constrained financially, non-constrained, and all the company. The sample used in this
study is manufacturing companies were listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2006-2011 selected by the
method of purposive sampling. Analytical techniques used in the data analysis panel with the approach Ordinary
Least Squared (OLS). This research indicated that diversifies have negative unsignificantly influence to change
cash holding on company.Tendency corporation to keep cash holding in response to lower positive cash flow in
diversified company.This influence was stronger on constrained than non- financially constrained company. The
cash flows had a positive influence on cash holding. This trend was stronger on corporations constrained than
financially non-constrained. While market to book value of assets had unsignificantly positive influence to cash
holding company. These influences should also apply to companies financially constrained. However, the
influence of market to book value of company assets in financially non-constrained could not be determined
having no systematic pattern on debt ratio, payout ratio, book-to-market asset ratio and size of assets.

The Risk Identification on the Assets of Green Management-Based Clean Water Services and their Management Plans And Strategies (A Study on Clean WaterServices In Jawa Barat)


Pages 80-92
Budi Supriatono Purnomo, Alfira Sofia, R.Nelly Nur Apandi

The aims of the study are to reveal weaknesses in the management of the Company assets, to identify danassses
the risk probability and risk impact faced by the Company as well as to design strategies and policies for riskbased
asset management in Clean Water Services (PPAB—Perusahaan Penyediaan Air Bersih).
The qualitative research method with explorative and descriptive approaches are used to explore either new
literatures or to collect experts’ opinion on factors related to the study, as well as to formulate strategies to
resolve the identified problems. In this study, we used 27 cities/regencies as sources of secondary data, and also
face-to-face interviewed with correspondent from academics, planners, and practitioners. Content analysis used
in processing primary data, whereas descriptive statistical analysis used in processing secondary data.
The results of the study show that the weaknesses in company asset management are as follows: no long-term
planning in the management of Clean Water Companies, the Full Cost Recovery concept has not been applied,
most of company assets are old assets, not all companies have asset management procedure, and the ownership
of company assets is unclear.Another result indicates a very low capacity of PPAB in providing clean water for
the public in their service areas. Customer satisfaction regarding completion rate of complaints shows that it is
quite able to meet the satisfaction level, in spite of a quite high of risk probability of dissatisfaction. Water loss ratio indicates the insufficient of water loss management with very low probability. The level of effectiveness of the customers accounts receivable collection indicates a great performance in managing their accounts receivable, while the risk probability is 24.25%. The greatest loss impact occurs when the average rates set by the company are lower than the actual production cost, which is a maximum of Rp 25.55 billion. The result of
the emergent types of risk, proposed strategy to handle the assets comprises technical risks include safety, the
use of tangible assets, currency exchange at chemicals purchase, electricity prices, and water loss, while
administrative risks include market value and problematic receivables. Finally, it revealed that PPAB still need
to improve their management since many aspects are still in the low level of achievement, so the findings in this
study can be used as a reference.

Track: Social Sciences and Humanities

Assessment of Competency Level of Pre-Service Teachers Based on National Competency- Based Teacher Standards (Ncbts) In Public School in the National Capital Region (Ncr)


Pages 93-111
Silvia C. Ambag

Education in the Philippines has undergone several stages of development from the pre-Spanish times to the
present. In meeting the needs of the society, education serves as focus of priorities of the leadership at certain
periods in our national struggle as a race. Learning, as a life-long process is a fact that can be realized through
different modes. It can be obtained in whatever an individual does and in everywhere he goes. But normally, the
educational system gives premium to the educative process. Several factors, other than teachers, are contributory
to be a positive significant predictor to this.The teacher‟s competency is a totality of skills that the teacher
possesses that corresponds to the best tool of a teacher. Sharpening of this “tool” has to start in the teachers or
the pre-service teachers. Competence is a basic motivation because of people‟s abhorrence to failure. Answers
to this problem will be a basis for the colleges offering BSed and BEed, in their attempt to raise the quality of
teacher graduates. Usually teacher training shall start in the preservice period of the teacher, and this shall be the starting point of the training experiences for the teacher education students. Therefore, we need competent and
professional teachers in the education institution. Teacher education has a significant impact on early career
teachers‟ skills and their philosophies of teaching. In particular, constructivist teacher education has been shown
to have a positive impact on pre-service teachers‟ perceptions of their own teaching competencies leading to
increased confidence and also improved teaching practice within schools. .

Gender Equality in Universities: Perceptions of Future Educators


Pages 112-121
Rovelina B. Jacolbia

The study utilized the descriptive method of study. It aimed to determine the gender equality as manifested in an educational institution such as the Polytechnic University of the Philippines, the largest state university in the Philippines in terms of student population. A survey was done to get the perceptions of future educators specifically Bachelor in Business Teacher Education students. A researcher-made questionnaire was used in
gathering the data. BBTE students’ perceptions on academe practices of gender equality were determined in
terms of learning materials, methods and strategies, subject matter, and evaluation. The study revealed that in all
four factors, respondents strongly agree that gender equality is manifested. It also revealed that there is no
significant difference between the perceptions of the male and female respondents on gender equality. It is
recommended that teachers should continue to be mindful of gender equality inside the classroom.

The Religious literacy Problem of Kazakhstan Youth


Pages 123-132
Baitenova Nagima, Borbassova Karlygash

In the modern world, religion has become one of the most powerful ideological factors actively influencing the
minds of people, primarily young people and, unfortunately, not always in positive terms. Many believers
among the youth of today believe in God with their concepts, and this understanding often does not coincide
with the values of traditional and world religions: God is represented as a kind of embodiment of good,
reasonable start, that is, as an abstract beginning, not necessarily supernatural, often impersonal. Such data do
not exclude the possibility of the emergence of new destructive non-traditional religious movements, which can
affect the souls and minds of young people in any updated forms. There is a rather significant factor when
young people not versed in matters of religion and cannot distinguish between traditional religion from
destructive religious movements, engaging in radical religious organizations, promote the restructuring of
society, eradication of social evils and injustice. The loss of confidence of young people to different social
projects makes a significant number of young people turn to destructive religious movements today, which often
cultivates a spirit of religious exclusivity, “closed” for the uninitiated and are part of the heritage of the chosen, the faithful claim to exclusivity is confidence in exclusive possession of truth. The faith today is not only one of the Windows in the world, but also the synthesis of religion and education, religion and philosophy, religion and science. Religion binds civilization and brings people together not only morality, but by tradition, spirituality. It is clearly that without religiosity man loses his basic humanity. The religious idea is accessible for everybody than philosophical, scientific, or historical idea. The spread of the phenomenon of psychological dependence young people in all sorts of radical religious movements are becoming a worrying trend in the modern world and Kazakhstan is no exception. The authors of this article agree that the root cause of this dependence should be sought in existing cultural traditions of upbringing and education. Modern educational policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan only produces a comprehensive set of tools for the training of religious literacy among young people. We recognize that any religion is the culture of the country, so tolerant Islam and Russian Orthodoxy
continuously to reach compromise and agreement to participate actively in the dialogue of cultures and religions, especially on topics that touch on the issue of youth educational policy.

Introducing Blogs in Food Writing


Pages 133-138
Farina Nozakiah Tazijan, Suzana Ab. Rahim, FazrulAzmi Zulkifli3, MohdAzli Razali, Noorliza Zainool  and KhairulHidayat Rezo

With the recent advancement of technology, classes are shifting from the traditional teaching to interactive
teaching and learning environment. One of the popular way teachers opt for is by blogging. Blog enables
students and teachers to post and share their ideas, comments and thoughts. In this research, blogging is
introduced to a group of UiTM Culinary degree students in their Food Writing class with the aim to investigate
their perceptions towards blogging and how their perceptions are associated with their engagement in blogging.
Students from the culinary program use blog to write their food review and food critique in their food writing
class. Drawing data from gathered interviews and questionnaires, the research reveals the success of blogging
depends on the participation and motivational aspects from the students, social networks and teachers are the
main contributing factors to provide continuous blogging.

Motivations toward Recreational Sport Participation among Women Police Officers in Ipd, Shah Alam


Pages 139-148
Abdul Rahim Mohd Meerah and Juraimie Jusoh

The aim of this study was to identify the main motivations of recreational sport participation among women
police officer in IPD, Shah Alam. This study used a questionnaire regarding the motivations and recreation
activity to collect the findings. A total of 81 women police officer in IPD, Shah Alam were involved as
respondents. From the Krejic table, the suitable sampling technique to be used in this research was simple
random. All the information obtained from the questionnaire had been collected and analyzed using SPSS.
Descriptive analyses were conducted on the motivations and discovered that most of the women would actively
participate in recreational sport activity. The short distance of recreational sport activity taking place, while the
non-participation in recreational sport activity was more obliged toward their family. Basically, married women
are more focused on their family rather than participating in a sport activity. Furthermore, this study also found
that there were significant differences in the motivations as well as demographic data that perceived by women
police officer in IPD, Shah Alam in recreational sport participation. The result of this study indicated that the
motivation factors had influenced the recreational sport participation among women police officer in IPD, Shah
Alam. The findings of this study also indicated that there was a statistically significant difference between
motivation factors toward the recreational sport participation. There was a significantly difference between
demographic data and women‟s participation in recreational sport activities in term of age and experience. In
conclusion, motivations play an important role in the participation or non-participation among women police
officers in recreational sport activities.

Psychological Factors Affecting Universities’ Students Food Choice


Pages 149-154
Guan Teik Ee,Rahimi Che Aman

Past research suggested that the number of young people who hurt themselves is growing significantly in the recent years and is becoming a public health problem in the West. Some Asian researchers claimed that self-hurt behaviour was reported not only to be prevalent in the West, but also in the developing world. World Health Organization reported that self-hurt behaviour has been emerging as one of the problems contributing to the rise in morbidity and mortality rates. Surveys also revealed that adolescents and young adults are at higher risk of engaging in self-hurt behaviour. Malaysia, as a developing country, with a population of 30.8 millions up to May 2015 has a relatively young population. However, relatively little self-hurt research has been done in Malaysia. Although there were some counselling records found, there is virtually no study that has been designed to identify young people’s self-hurt behaviour. Thus, this research was carried out to find out the prevalence of self-hurt behaviour among the young people in Malaysia. At the same time a qualitative data revealed that adolescents did not seek help for their self-hurt problems. Therefore the reasons for not seeking help was explored.

Motivation, Task Orientation and Ego Orientation Influence Flow Experience among Golfer


Pages 155-164
Rezi Rezian-Na Muhammed Kassim, Nor Hasmah Abdul Haris, Mohamad Ali Kimik

The popularity of golf sport in Malaysia has been linked to growing demands and this trend is expected to
continue. Most of the golfer seeks specific needs and wants to meet their motivation satisfaction. Several studies
have explored motivating factors for sports participation among people, but limited data available regarding
factors motivating golfer to participate in sports specifically by embracing the flow theory. Therefore, this
paper attempts to provide insight into how motivation, task orientation, ego orientation, influences flow
experiences of golfers. By using the purposive sampling, a total of 100 (n=100) golfer was interviewed using
quantitative method. Three hypotheses were tested, two were significant and one was not accepted (task
orientation). Thus, club managers need to manoeuvre the marketing strategy and focus on social aspect for the
golfer engaging in golf and create pleasure experience. Future research needs to investigate the differences
between ego, goal and task orientation that influence flow experience among other sport setting.

Track: Physical Life and Applied Sciences

It is Necessary to Develop the Weather Derivative Contracts: Research in Vietnam


Pages 165-171
Doan Thanh Ha

Climate change is increasing the risk that corresponds more to businesses affected by the changing weather. In order to hedge the risks caused by weather, need to have the weather derivative instruments to mitigate the negative impact of weather on the economy. In order to hedge the weather risks, it is necessary to have the
weather derivative instruments to mitigate the negative impact of weather on the economy. By the observation
and descriptive statistics methods, this article focuses on the introduction of the types of weather derivatives and the necessary applications to Vietnam.

Catecholamine and Cortisol Levels in Relation to Temperature and Transportation Stress in Goats


Pages 172-186
Al-Abry, G. S., Mahmoud, I. Y., Al-Bahry, S. N., Mann, G

Generally, rise in stress hormonal levels can harm animal health meat quality of animals. Effect of
transportation under extreme ambient temperatures was monitored in the Dhofari goats during summer (35-45
oC) and winter (15-20 oC) in two age groups, 1 and 1.5 years old. Goats were divided into control and
experimental groups. Experimental group was transported for 4.5 hours in an open truck while the controlled
goats remained in a shaded pen. The effect of transportation, extreme ambient temperatures and age factors
caused significant stress resultedin high rise in the plasma stress hormones, adrenaline, noradrenaline and
cortisol during both seasons. Adrenaline and noradrenaline plasma levels were measured using high
performance liquid chromatography, while cortisol was measured using chemiluminescence immunoassay.
Rectal temperature varied during the experimental procedure relative to the ambient temperature. This
investigation reveals that transportation under extreme temperatures can influence the stress level hormonal
levels in both which can be harmful to animal health and meatquality. In conclusion, stressful conditions must
be avoided in order to prevent any side effect on goats.

Diagnostics and Optimization of Crops‟ Nitrogen Nutrition in Rainfed Conditions of the Northern Kazakhstan


Pages 187-196
Valentina Grigoriyevna Chernenok, Borislavovich Kudashev and S.Seifullin

The results of years‟ research (n=600) in diagnostics and optimization of the conditions of crops‟ nitrogen nutrition are considered in this article. The methodological approach to the evaluation of soil nitrogen state and crops with nitrogen is explicated. New method of determining the needs and dose calculation in nitrogen
fertilizers with individual requirements of crop and the main factors defining their effectiveness is represented.
A model predicting the effectiveness of fertilizers is also presented. The developed technique allows
purposefully manage soil nitrogen regime supplying optimization of nutrition and implementation of crops‟
potential possibilities.

Model Impact Resistance of Bio-Textile Fabrics Composite from Agave and Pineapple Leaf Fibers


Pages 197-204
Asmanto Subagyo

The objective of this research is a comprehensive model is presented to study the deformation and damage to bio-textile fabrics composite from agave and pineapple leaves fibres under small projectile impacts. The
approach dynamically follows the strain wave propagation along each individual yarn away from the impact
point. As in previous work the mechanics of wave propagation is formulated in terms of impulse-momentum
balance equations, which are solved at each fiber crossover using a finite different technique. Our approach
explicitly considers the various projectile characteristics namely; mass, velocity and shape, as well as all fiber
properties such as denier, modulus, and tenacity (tensile strength). Even more importantly the model allow to
account for slippage of yarn at crossovers and within the clamps. In previous work, slippage of yarn and fracture
processes are described with a kinetic approach, which explicitly accounts for their dependence on impact rate.
Results of model are in good quantitative agreement with published experimental data on single ply and several
plies bio-textile fabric composite. They also clearly indicate that yarn slippage through clamps often seen
experimentally is responsible for some salient features observed in ballistic data.

Air Pollution and Shading as Possible Factor Affecting Number of Algal Cells (Chlorophyta: Coccomyxa Confluens)


Pages 205-211
Asmida Ismail, NurulFarhana Arbain, Noor Akmal Wahab, Ahmad Ismail  and SitiKhairiyahMohd Hatta


Terrestrial algae, one of the many important living things for the earth’s ecosystem are abundant in large
spectrum such as on tree barks, stones, walls and plastics. The objectives of this research were to assess the
effect of shading towards the number of algal cells inhabiting 30 free standing trees. Besides that, this study also looks into the number of algal cells in polluted and unpolluted environment. The results of this study showed
that epiphytic terrestrial algae were found to grow abundantly in polluted environment as opposed to unpolluted
ones. The algae are believed to be able to tolerate high amount of air pollutants such as carbon dioxide, carbon
monoxide and many nitrogenous gases. Shading also appeared to influence the number of algal cells where the
area with less shade provide better living ground for the algae. The number of algae is directly proportional to
the amount of light they received. Therefore, this study provides a useful baseline data on some pollutanttolerant
algal species.

Partnership between Midwives and Traditional Birth Attendants (Tbas) in the Work Health District Minasate’ne Pangkep 2014


Pages 212-221
Yusriani, Amaliah Octaviani


Background: According to WHO (2007) Indonesia ranks fourth-highest maternal mortality rate in 2005 when
compared to the world’s developing countries. One of the many health cases still occur in Indonesia is to aid
delivery by TBAs. In fact, almost all Indonesian people living in both rural and urban areas prefer to be assisted
by TBAs. The proportion of deliveries according to place of birth in Indonesia is as much as 55.4% in health
facilities, 1.4% and 43.2% in Polindes at home and other places (51.9% and 40.2% helped midwife helped
shaman). Minasate’ne district health center. Minasate’ne Kab. Pangkep partnership program has been running
since the year 2010. This study aimed to determine the behavior of the partnership between midwives and
traditional birth attendants in the Puskesmas Minasate’ne.
Methods: The study was a quantitative research approach of “cross sectional” with a total sample of 32 people.
In this study using a questionnaire as a data collection instrument is then processed by using a computer and
presented in table accompanied by an explanation. To determine the relationship between the independent
variable on the dependent variable, the chi-square test was used.
Results: The results showed that the partnership midwives and traditional birth attendants can be in the good
category 46.9% and 53.1% unfavorable. Based on the results of the bivariate analysis, the p-value <α (0.05) to obtain that there is a relationship between knowledge, attitudes, facilities, training, and regulations with the panrtnership between midwives and birth attendants in Puskesmas Minasate’ne Pangkep, while for supervision no association with the partnership between midwives and traditional birth attendants because the value of p = 0.229 or p> α (0.05).
Suggestion: This study suggests that health workers in health centers Minasate’ne further enhance the
knowledge, skills, equip the facility, as well as supervision of midwives and traditional birth attendants in the
partnership program run by providing some forms of training are very helpful for birth attendants and midwives
in the running its role as a partner.

Preliminary Study of Methane Oxidation in Landfill Cover Soil; The Effect of Moisture Content


Pages 222-230
Faeiza Buyong, MohdSuzairiff Zainal and NurulAtikahMohd Fozi

Methane oxidation is one of the important processes to mitigate the emission of methane gas at landfill to the
environment. This study investigated the effect of moisture content in order to enhance the methane oxidation of
final cover soil from Taman Medan Dumpsite. Three different PVC soil columns contained cover soils with
moisture content of 7%, 12% and 28% were used in this study. The columns were purged with the mixture of
methane gas (60% by volume) and carbon dioxide gas (40% by volume) from the bottom of the soil columns.
The mixture gas passing through the soil media was retrieved from the columns daily via sampling ports
fabricated at every 10cm of the column height. The soil cover was classified as sandy silt contained 56 % of
sand, 32 % of silt and 12 % of clay. It also had 12% of moisture content, bulk density of 0.229 g/cm3, particle
bulk density of 0.0304 g/cm3, pH of 7.21, colour of dark yellowish brown, porosity of 86.72% and organic
matter of 1.5 %. Gas chromatography analysed the collected gas had showed that methane oxidation effectively
occurred in the column with 12% of moisture content that the average methane oxidation efficiency of the 7-day
experiment was 47.97%. However, the methane oxidation efficiency in the other two columns with 7 and 28%
of moisture content was significantly lower with only 8.93 and 7.87% of efficiency. The analyses also showed
highest methane oxidation efficiency, by average, took place at the height of 80cm of those columns.

Track: Health and Medicine Studies

Chromosomal Analysis and NORs Polymorphism of Bagarius SUCHUS (Siluriformes: Sisoridae) by Conventional
Banding and FISH Techniques


Pages 231-244
Nuntiya Maneechot, Weerayuth Supiwong, Alongklod Tanomtong

In the present study, conventional staining and NORs banding as well as Fluorescence in situ hybridization
(FISH) using the 18S rDNA and telomeric (TTAGGG)n probes were applied to stain the chromosomes of
crocodile catfish, Bagariussuchus (Siluriformes, Sisoridae) from the Chao Praya River, Thailand. Kidney cells
of 6 male and 6 female crocodile catfishes were used as a sample. The mitotic chromosome preparations were
done directly from kidney cells. The results showed that the diploid chromosome number of B. suchus was
2n=56, the fundamental numbers (NF) were 102 in both male and female. The karyotype comprises
17m+17sm+12a+10t. The nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were detected by Ag-NORs banding and 18S
rDNA probe mapping. The 18S rDNA are terminally located on the short arm adjacent to the telomere of the
single pair of the 1st chromosome pair whereas NOR-bearing chromosome is only one chromosome of the 1st
chromosome pair (1a 1b, polymorphic characteristic) at the subtelomeric region of the short arm. Moreover,
FISH with telomeric probe showed hybridization signals on each telomere of all chromosomes and interstitial
telomeric sites were not detected. There were variations in signals of FISH and their position in the karyotype
along with variation in DNA sequences. These markers are useful for future discrimination of population of
closely related species and their polymorphism.

Yahya Ibn „Adi on Psychotherapy


Pages 245-254
Mohd. Nasir Omar, Dr. Zaizul Ab Rahman

Among Christian scholars who especially distinguished themselves in the 10th/11th century Islamic Baghdad
were Yahya Ibn „Adi (d.974), Ibn Zur„ah (d.1008), Ibn al-Khammar (d.1017) and Abu „Ali al-Samh (d.1027).
Some of these Christian translators were no longer relying on the Caliphs or other patrons of learning, but often
found their own means of living which in turn prolonged their own academic interest. Consequently, some of
them were no mere translators any more, but genuine scholars. The chief architect among them was Yahya Ibn
„Adi. He was not only the leader of his group but was also dubbed as the best Christian translator, logician and
theologian of his times. This is justified, in addition, by his ample productivity in those fields of enquiry. A
considerable number of such works have evidently been used by contemporary and later writers, and have also
reached us today. Hence we consider that it is in these aspects that his distinctive contributions to scholarship
lie, and therefore he deserves more serious study. Thus, this qualitative study which applies conceptual content
analysis method, seeks to make an analytical study of Yahya Ibn „Adi‟s theory of psychotherapy as reflected in
his major work on ethics, Tahdhib al-Akhlaq (The Refinement of Character).

Factors Associated with Maternal Behavior in Exclusive Breastfeeding Baby Ages 6 To 11 Months in Mawasangka District Buton 2014


Pages 255-266
FairusPrihatin Idris, Hilda Safitri

Background : Babies who are fed with formula milk are likely to die in the first month of his birth. And the opportunity was 25 times higher than babies who are breastfed by his mother Exclusive. The number of cases of
malnutrition in children under two years old who had struck the Indonesian region can be minimized through
exclusive breastfeeding. Therefore, exclusive breastfeeding naturally be made as a priority program in our
country is growing. Based on preliminary data obtained at the Mawasangka health center over a period of two
years 2011 ASI coverage 330 (39.6 %) infants, and in 2012 amounted to 404 (48.48 %) infants, and in 2013
January to May totaled 124 ( 6.2 %) infants.
Methods : The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with maternal behavior in exclusive
breastfeeding in infants aged 6 to 11 months in the Work Area Health CenterMawasangkaMawasangka District
of Buton . This study was an observational analytic study with cross sectional design . Sampling was performed
using total sampling conducted by interview of 124 respondents using statistical analysis was done by Chi –
Square test .
Result : The result showed that There is a relationship between knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding in infants
aged 6 to 11 months (p = 0.009), there was no relationship between attitudes towards exclusive breastfeeding in
infants aged 6 to 11 months (p = 0.123), there is a relationship between the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding
to exclusive breastfeeding in infants aged 6 to 11 (p = 0.014), there was no relationship between the culture of
exclusive breastfeeding in infants aged 6 to 11 months (p = 1.000), there is a relationship between a husband to
support breastfeeding exclusively in infants aged 6 to 11 (p = 0.000), there is a relationship between the health
worker to support exclusive breastfeeding in infants aged 6 to 11 months (p = 0.001).
Recommendation: It should be given a more in-depth information to Mother about exclusive breastfeeding, as
well as understanding and giving proper time through posters , banners , advertisements and brochures. It should
be given cultural understanding related to maternal health , such as the culture of the poor colostrum.

Risk Factor of Tuberculosis Coinfection to the Hiv/Aids Victim at Labuang Baji Hospital Makassar in 2014


Pages 267-274
Sri Syatriani, Musdalifah

Tuberculosis (TB) is an opportunistic infection disease which occurred most often to the HIV infection.
Nowadays, coinfection HIV – TB is the main causal factor of mortality in the world caused by this infectious
agent.The research aims to acknowledge the risk factor of smoking history, alcohol consumption history and
nutrition status on the TB coinfection to the HIV/AIDS victims at Labuang Baji Hospital Makassar.The research
is analytical observational research with case-control design. The sampels are divided into two, they are 23
cases and 46 controls, so the total respondents are 69 people. The sampling acquisition is using Accidental
Sampling.The research result shows that the risk of smoking history to the TB coinfection with the level of trust
reaching 95% gained OR value = 5,6. The risk of alcohol consumption to the TB coinfection with the leve of
trust reaching 95% gained OR value = 2,91 and the risk of nutition status to the TB coinfection with the level of
trust 95% gained OR value = 5,65. The conclusion is that smoking history and nutrition status are the risk factor
of TB coinfection, while alcohol consumption history is meaningless factor to TB coinfection. The suggestion is
the necessity of strategic and better health service to improve the control of TB to HIV/AIDS victims.

Viral Load from Tissue Brushing and Peripheral Blood of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma from Makassar Before and after Treatment


Pages 275-281
Eka Savitri, Sofia Mubarak Haryana, Anwar Mallongi

The aim of this study is to compare the plasma of Ebstein Barr Virus (EBV) DNA load and viral load of tissue brushing correlate of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) from Makassar before and after treatment. This
research applied an analytic study to all 39 NPC’s cases that have been informed to be recruited and every case
have signed their informed consent. EBV DNA plasma was examined using RT-PCR as written by the
manufacturer. Primer used in this study were QP1, QP2, and internal hybridization probes fluorigenic LC N
EBNA and EBNA FLN (TIBMOL Biol, Berlin, Germany). Real-time PCR reagents from Roche Diagnostics
(Almere, Netherlands). The distribution of cases was based on anaplastic histopathological status. Results
indicated that distribution of cases based on pathology anatomy are: type I (Carcinoma of squamosa cell with
ceratinized) was 1 case, type II (Differentiated carcinoma without ceratinized) was 13 cases, and type III
(Anaplastic) was 25 cases. The absolut specificity indicated that EBV viral load from brushing is more specific
for NPC compared to serum. Sensitivity (67.6%), Specificity (100%) and accuracy (69,2%) indicated that
brushing is quite sensitive to be used as diagnostic for NPC compare to serum. The average of viral load from
brushing before tretment was 370959680.9 and viral load plasma was 109324.6. The average of viral load from
brushing after treatment was 192995.3, and viral load plasma was 981.6. In conclusion, EBV DNA of viral load
can be used as a marker for the presence of NPC and the progression of the disease.